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Computed tomography measurements of normal adrenal glands in Indian population
Neeti Aggarwal, Rohit Bhoil, Sanjiv Sharma, Surya Pratap Singh
January-March 2019, 68(1):23-26
Introduction: Evaluating the adrenal glands for size is fundamental in their imaging and to ascertain its normality or abnormality. Awareness of the range of normal size and shape is useful for adequate interpretation of computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with suspected adrenal pathology. Material and Methods: CT body scans of 1250 patients without evidence of adrenal disease were reviewed to determine the shape and size of normal adrenal glands. Patients with conditions that are known to affect the adrenal glands or any known malignancy were excluded from the study. Furthermore, patients with any evidence of focal adrenal enlargement or malignancy on imaging were not included in the study. All measurements were made on 64-slice contrast-enhanced CT axial sections and only those images were selected in which the adrenals were adequately visualized. Three measurements were made: maximum width of the body of the gland and maximum width of both the limbs (medial and lateral); all measurements were taken perpendicular to the long axis of the body/limb. Results: Based on our study, we came to the conclusion that the average width of the body of the right and left adrenal glands is 6.9 ± 0.31 mm and 5.4 ± 0.24 mm, respectively (though maximum width of the body may reach up to 11 mm) and that normal adrenal limbs should not measure >5 mm. Discussion and Conclusion: The most common shape of the adrenal glands was found to be Y shape, followed by the V and triangular shapes. The values provided in the present study may be used as a reference standard for the CT evaluation of the adrenal glands in the Indian population in particular.
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Saraswatarishta reverses neuronal injury in brain tissues of scopolamine-induced rat model
Jai Prabhu, S Jayakumari, K Prabhu, Jyothi Ashok Kumar, Manickam Subramanian, Kavimani
October-December 2019, 68(4):269-273
Introduction: Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis or the progression of the variety of acute and chronic neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. The Saraswatarishta is an Ayurvedic medicine utilized in many health conditions such as anti-aging, to improve memory, immunity, and quality of semen and sperms to treat epilepsy and cosmetic use for skins. It is a liquid Ayurvedic medicine. Saraswatarishta contains 5%–10% of self-produced alcohol in it, which serves as a vehicle to deliver water- and alcohol-soluble active herbal components to the body. It is also called Sarasvatarishtam. The aim of this study was to find the possible neuroprotective role of Saraswatarishtam as a preventive Ayurveda and Siddha drug to hamper cholinergic dysfunctions and histopathological changes in scopolamine-treated rat model. Material and Methods: The compound Saraswatarishtam was obtained from standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai. Group 1 – normal control animals received normal saline for 8 continuous days. Group 2 – positive control treated with scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg). Group 3 – received 200 mg/kg of piracetam for 8 continuous days. Group 4 and Group 5 served as a test and received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of Saraswatarishtam, respectively, for 8 continuous days. On the 8th day, after 90 min of drug administration, Group 2, Group 3, Group 4 and Group 5, were treated with 0.4 mg/kg of scopolamine. Brain tissues were dissected out and analyzed for histopathological changes after sacrifice with high dose of halothane. Results: Administration of scopolamine produced marked focal gliosis with mononuclear infiltration. The hippocampal region showed neuronal degeneration with sclerosis. Piracetam treated group showed pyknotic nucleus in neurons of the cerebral cortex and mild edema. Low dose (200 mg/kg) treatment with Saraswatarishtam followed by scopolamine administration showed moderate histopathological changes such as mild infiltration of monocytes but normal neuronal architecture. High dose (400 mg/kg) treatment with Saraswatarishtam followed by scopolamine administration shows abnormal morphology of cerebrum, cerebellum, basal nuclei, and hippocampus. Discussion and Conclusion: The results of the present study suggested that Saraswatarishtam exhibits neuroprotective properties against scopolamine-induced neuronal damage.
  4,835 278 -
The morphological variants of dural venous sinuses
Sercan Ozkacmaz, Yeliz Dadali, Muhammed Alpaslan, Ilyas Uçar
October-December 2020, 69(4):207-212
Introduction: In this study, we aimed to analyze the dural venous system variations in Turkey by magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Material and Methods: Images of a total of 200 patients (65 males, 135 females M/F: 0.48) who underwent a magnetic resonance venography examination were retrospectively screened. Results: Variation was detected in 101 patients (53.85% of males [35/65] and 48.89% of females [66/135]). In 16.5% of the patients, only one variation of dural venous system was detected, while the most common variation was left transverse hypoplasia in this group. Twenty-six percent of the patients had two variations of the dural venous system since the most common dual variations were left transverse hypoplasia + left sigmoid hypoplasia in this group. In 8% of the patients, three or more variations of the dural venous system were observed as the most common variations were right transverse hypoplasia + right sigmoid hypoplasia + presence of occipital sinus in this group. Discussion and Conclusion: It is essential to know the anatomical variations of the dural venous system for the discrimination between pathological processes such as thrombosis and physiologic conditions. Furthermore, the association of these variations with each other must be kept in mind for the explanation of the presence of multiple variations in the same individuals.
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Active learning methodology – jigsaw technique: An innovative method in learning anatomy
Monika Lalit, Sanjay Piplani
April-June 2019, 68(2):147-152
Introduction: For years together, gross anatomy is taught by the traditional teacher-oriented teaching method, i.e., students have to attend the lecture classes followed by the dissection on cadavers. In general, most of the students find it difficult to understand and retain gross anatomy. Active learning (AL) has received considerable attention over the past several years and is often contrasted to the traditional lecture where students passively receive information from the instructor. Class time is also brief and precious, and the information we want to communicate to our students is also important. AL Methodology (ALM) by jigsaw technique encourages active student participation, maximizes their own and each other's learning, and improves their communication skills which can be applied beyond anatomy to their careers as future physicians. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of implementation of AL method as a learning tool on the learning and performance of 1st-year medical students. Material and Methods: The project was carried out in the Department of Anatomy comprising 150 first professional MBBS students. Sensitization session with students and faculty was done. Two topics already taught by traditional didactic lecture were chosen for the jigsaw technique. Effectiveness of learning experience was evaluated by the students and faculty through a prevalidated feedback questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale to record their experiences, perception, and attitude toward the ALM (jigsaw). Results: The findings of student's feedback on five-point Likert scale revealed that the students were in favor that ALM was helpful in improving the learning skills and major topics should be taught by this AL methodology. Discussion and Conclusion: The study results show that ALM jigsaw technique is an effective teaching method. ALM by jigsaw technique motivated and encouraged active student participation and discussions. Students and faculty both favored the use of ALM.
  4,258 464 2
Anatomical study of size variability of temporal and occipital horns of lateral ventricle of human brains: A magnetic resonance imaging study
Archana G Kalyankar, SN Dope, SB Sukre, Pravin H Shingare
January-March 2019, 68(1):74-78
Introduction: The lateral ventricles lie in each cerebral hemisphere with its three horns and body. The study of normal and variant anatomy of the ventricles of brain is very useful for clinicians and neurosurgeons in their routine practice. This study is directed to look for changes in the size of occipital and temporal horns of the lateral ventricle as per age and sex of the brain by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Material and Methods: MRI scans of 55 patients (25 females and 30 males) with age ranging from 1 to 90 years were studied and the diameters of occipital and temporal horns were measured. Data were analyzed with respect to age and sex of individuals. Results: It was observed that the mean diameter of both horns decreases from 1 to 10 years of age group and increases from then to advancing age. No significant gender difference in the dimensions of both the horns of lateral ventricle was observed. Discussion and Conclusion: The present study showed that the age factor is responsible for change in the size of occipital and temporal horns of the lateral ventricle. The present study will be helpful to radiologists and neurosurgeons to differentiate the enlarged size of occipital and temporal horns by aging from that of other pathological conditions.
  4,414 245 -
Oral Presentation

October 2019, 68(5):1-72
  4,320 251 -
Namaste: The traditional indian way of greeting goes global during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic
Rashi Singh, Gaurav Singh, Vishram Singh
April-June 2020, 69(2):65-66
  4,024 394 1
Nervi terminalis (“0” pair of cranial nerve) revisited from fishes to humans
Rashi Singh, Gaurav Singh, Vishram Singh
January-March 2020, 69(1):53-56
According to classical teaching in medical colleges and institutes, there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, attached to the brain. They are numbered in Roman numerals from I to XII in the craniocaudal order of their attachment on the brain. In fact, there are 13 pairs of cranial nerves, the one which is not taught is the nervus terminalis (NT), i.e., “0” pair of cranial nerve. It is attached rostral to all other cranial nerves. Although it has been clearly identified as an additional nerve in the vertebrate species including humans for more than a century, its functional role is also understood to some extent. Still, it could not find its place in the standard textbooks of anatomy. It has also been given different names, viz., nerve of Pinkus, NT, cranial nerve “0,” cranial nerve nulla, terminal nerve, and cranial nerve XIII.
  3,740 289 -
Anatomical study of the middle turbinate and its applied importance
Payal Arvind Kasat, Gayatri Girish Muthiyan
January-March 2019, 68(1):56-61
Introduction: Endoscopy is widely recognized as a safe, convenient, and cost-efficient tool for examining and treating nasal ailments. The middle turbinate is an important landmark of the lateral nasal wall during endoscopy. Knowledge regarding the anatomy of the middle turbinate and its variations is beneficial to the endoscopic surgeons. Material and Methods: The shape and size of the middle turbinate were studied in hundred hemisected adult Indian cadaveric heads. Results: The middle turbinate is classified into three types according to the shape of its anterior border: Type 1 (38%), Type 2 (42%), and Type 3 (20%). The mean distance between the anterior attachment of the middle turbinate and the anterior attachment of the superior turbinate (MS) is 19.22 mm. The mean heights of the middle turbinate at its intersection with the anterior attachment (M1), the middle portion (M2), and at the posterior end (M3) of the superior turbinate are 12.83 mm, 9.14 mm, and 5.61 mm, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: The study has described the anatomy of the middle turbinate with its clinical implications, especially in Type 1 and Type 3 middle turbinates, and precautionary measures should be taken while performing partial turbinectomy to avoid destabilizing the middle turbinate and to maintain patency of the middle meatus postoperatively. The documentation of these various types and their frequencies would be useful for the otorhinologists while performing endoscopy.
  3,687 258 -
Prof. Asim Kumar Datta (1927–2020)
Ranjit Guha
April-June 2020, 69(2):116-117
  3,692 175 -
Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in patients with low back pain: Radiological classification and morphometric analysis
Priyanka Daniel, Jerry Joseph Joel, Parminder Kaur Rana
April-June 2019, 68(2):123-128
Introduction: Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are a congenital variation found in patients incidentally. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of LSTV and to study its morphometric parameters radiologically in comparison with patients with no LSTV, in low back pain patients in Punjabi population. Material and Methods: The anteroposterior (AP) and lateral lumbosacral spinal radiographs of 100 patients with low back pain were studied. LSTV were identified and classified based on the Castellvi classification. The width of the transverse processes, superior and inferior vertebral end plate, mid-AP diameter and height of the L5 vertebra, and L5–S1 disc height were measured. All parameters were statistically analyzed and compared between normal and LSTV patients. Results: LSTV were found in 22% of low back pain patients, all comprising sacralization of L5, most common Castellvi type being IIA (31.9%). There were a statistically significant increase in the width of transverse processes of L5 vertebrae on both the right and left sides (P < 0.001 each) and a significant increase in height of L5 body (P = 0.03), with a decrease in L5–S1 disc height (P = 0.05) in low back pain patients with LSTV in comparison with patients without LSTV. Discussion and Conclusions: LSTV is a common congenital anatomical variation found in patients with low back pain. An increased height of L5 vertebra with a decreased L5–S1 disc height is found to be related to LSTV and can be useful for radiologically suspecting LSTV in patients with low back pain.
  3,494 301 1
Assessment of accessory mental foramen using cone-beam computed tomography and its clinical relevance
Milos Z Zivic, Miroslav R Vasovic, Aleksandar B Acovic, Ana Z Lukovic, Ivana K Zivanovic-Macuzic, Milica M Velickovic, Tatjana V Kanjevac
April-June 2020, 69(2):91-96
Introduction: Accessory mental foramen (AMF) is defined as any additional opening on the anterior surface of the mandible body that is connected to the mandibular canal. The presence of AMF is an important anatomical parameter when planning the therapy to avoid neurovascular bundle injury and other complications. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides an accurate, three-dimensional determining of the position, its dimensions and the relation of AMF to the mental foramen (MF), as well as the distinction from nutritive openings. Material and Methods: The research was carried out at the Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, as a retrospective study where 148 CBCT images were analyzed. The analysis of the position of AMF, the relation to and the distance from the MF were made on cross-sectional and axial images. Only those openings that have had a clear connection with the mandibular canal were counted as AMF. Results: AMF was present in 12 (8.11%) patients. In most cases, AMF was positioned superior to MF, in 27% of patients. There was no significant statistical difference between sex and the jaw side. The average distance of AMF from MF was 4.52 ± 2.21 mm. In most cases, AMF is round shaped (60%). The average value of the surface area is 1.62 ± 1.14 mm2. Discussion and Conclusion: Timely detection of AMF using CBCT contributes to the diagnosis and planning of appropriate dentures, surgical technique, preventing possible damage to adjacent anatomical structures, or some other therapy.
  3,173 312 1
Study on mandibular parameters of forensic significance
D Sreelekha, D Madhavi, S Swayam Jothi, A Vijayalakshmi Devi, K Srinidhi
January-March 2020, 69(1):21-24
Introduction: Bones often survive the process of decay and therefore provide the major evidence of human age and sex after death. The identification of human skeletal remains is a critical problem and is very important in medico-legal and anthropological works. The determination of sex of an individual is important and necessary both in the living and dead for medico-legal purposes. The aim of this study is to measure and analyze the various parameters of the mandible and to assess the reliability of the above parameters in terms of percentage accuracy in sex determination. Material and Methods: A total of 106 whole-adult human mandibles of unknown sex, between the age group of 18–60 years, were collected and studied at the Department of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Guntur Medical College, Guntur from 2014 to 2015. The following parameters studied were symphyseal height, mandibular body length, bicondylar diameter, bigonial diameter, inter incisor width, and mandibular angle. Results: Of the six parameters studied, highly significant (statistically) difference in sex was observed in bigonial diameter (82.15% accuracy) and mandibular angle (81.5% accuracy). Discussion and Conclusion: The inference of the study is that no single parameter gives 100% accuracy in the determination of the sex of the individual. Hence, a judicious consideration of the highly significant parameters of the mandible may be taken into account in the determination of the sex of the individual.
  3,118 354 2
Dissecting the future: A critical review of anatomy's past, present, and future following the carnegie foundation's call for medical education reform
Hassan Amiralli, Sherese Joseph
October-December 2019, 68(4):306-311
By looking at anatomy's past and present, anatomists can acquire an overview of where the profession has been and where it now needs to go to meet the needs of 21st century medical education. This paper reviews past and present pedagogy and offers an alternative approach to the future of anatomy education through the use of digital dissection and more integrative didactic experiences.
  3,169 245 2
Typical thoracic vertebrae morphometry: A cadaveric study in Nigeria
OA Egwu, GN Okechukwu, GC Uzomba, SO Eze, UK Ezemagu
April-June 2019, 68(2):110-118
Introduction: Spine morphometry is of global interest because of its great importance in prosthetics, orthopedics, and biomechanics. The present study was carried out to provide a comprehensive morphometric data of typical thoracic vertebrae in Nigeria. Material and Methods: A total of 208 typical thoracic vertebrae which consist of 26 set of macerated adult male vertebrae, were studied by direct measurements of the vertebral body, vertebral foramen, pedicle, lamina, spinous and transverse processes, and superior and inferior articular processes. Digital Vernier Caliper was used to measure internal and external distances. Data collected were statistically analyzed and mean values were presented in a mean ± standard deviation. Results: Anterior vertebral body height (VBH) gradually increased to a maximum value at T9 (18.83 ± 1.54 mm) and minimum at T2 (16.93 ± 1.57 mm). Mean value of posterior VBH was minimum at T2 (17.59 ± 1.43 mm) and maximum at T9 (20.46 ± 3.08 mm). Width of spinous process tip had relatively stable values from T2 to T9 with the maximum at T2 (5.05 ± 1.36 mm). Lamina thickness mean values were relatively stable from T2 to T9 with a maximum value at T9 level (7.30 ± 1.24 mm) and the minimum at T2 (6.60 ± 1.16 mm). Discussion and Conclusion: Superior and inferior articular surfaces and Laminae were reported for the first time which contributes to the novelty of this study. These findings will serve as a guidepost in the understanding and design of well-fitted materials for the typical thoracic vertebrae, which will enhance preclinical and clinical evaluation of vertebral implants, prosthetics, and management of spine pathology.
  3,021 379 1
Students' perception of vertical integration for topics of applied anatomy in 1st year MBBS
Shalini Kumar, Musharraf Hussain
October-December 2019, 68(4):295-298
Introduction: There is a rapid change in medical education around the world; as a result, the Medical Council of India (MCI) has put forward guidelines for various medical colleges for effective and need-based curriculum for MBBS. Integrated teaching is most important aspect of this modified competency-based curriculum. Hence, the aim is to introduce the vertical integration and assess the students' perception for topics of applied anatomy in 1st year MBBS students. Material and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 93 1st year MBBS students who consented for this study in the Department of Anatomy, HIMSR, Delhi, after getting approval from the institutional ethics committee. Integrated lectures for two applied anatomy topics were conducted by the faculty of anatomy and surgery. Questionnaire was provided for the feedback of the students. Results: A total of 93 MBBS students participated. Eighty-two percent of students like the session of integrated teaching and found it very useful to understand the topic. Seventy-three percent of students appreciated content, methods, and presentation of integrated teaching session, and hence, the learning objectives were achieved. Seventy-eight percent of students strongly agreed that integrated teaching helped them in better retention of topic. Eighty percent of students strongly felt that integrated teaching method should be incorporated as teaching–learning methods for some more topics of applied importance. Discussion and Conclusion: The students recognized the importance of integrated teaching. They found this session interesting and wish that these should be continued for other topics also regularly and frequently. Hence, integrated teaching should be implemented in medical curriculum for effective teaching.
  3,129 270 -
The effects of passive smoking on the human placenta: A gross and microscopic study
Srividya Sreenivasan, Satyam Khare
January-March 2019, 68(1):34-38
Introduction: Passive smoking is an established health hazard. Placenta is the main conduit of both nutrients and toxins to the fetus. This study aims to study the effect of passive smoking on the gross and microscopic changes in the placenta among passive smokers. Material and Methods: Gross and microscopic examination was done of the 150 term placentae donated to the department of anatomy; 63 were from gravidas with no history of exposure to tobacco smoke and labeled as controls, whereas 87 placentae were collected from passive smokers. Results: We observed a significant increase in the calcification of fetal surface of the placentae in our cohort (approximately 16% as compared to approximately 13% in the control group). Syncytial knots were found in 43% of the terminal villi in our cohort. Fibrinoid degeneration was observed in approximately 7% of the terminal villi of passive smokers. Hyperplasia of cytotrophoblast was observed in approximately 30% of the terminal villi in our cohort. 14% of the terminal villi of passive smokers had thickening of subtrophoblastic basement membrane. 9.47% of the terminal villi in the passive smoking group were avascular. These findings were statistically significant. Discussion and Conclusion: Passive smoking causes changes in the placenta at the gross and microscopic level. The gross and histologic changes seen in the placenta in this study are known to be associated with adverse fetal outcome. The changes in the placenta can serve as a means of understanding the mechanism of the fetal morbidity due to active or passive smoking.
  3,177 168 -
Students' perception on anatomy education in Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Malaysia
Atikah Abdul Latiff, Saheera Kamarzaman, Norhafizah Ab Manan, Krishna Gopal Rampal, Bala Krishnian Muniandy
April-June 2019, 68(2):163-173
Introduction: Anatomy education faces continuous debate about the best teaching methods to maximize learning as sufficient knowledge of anatomy is crucial for safe and efficient clinical practice. This study was conducted to explore students' perceptions about learning anatomy by focusing around six major topics: (i) the importance of anatomy in medical school, (ii) factors influencing students' performance in anatomy, (iii) anatomy teaching methods, (iv) continuous assessment in anatomy, (v) the clarity of learning outcomes, and (vi) students' suggestions to improve anatomy learning. Material and Methods: A total 183 medical students from year 1 to year 5 currently studying in Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences participated in the survey. This study involved collecting data through the Anatomy Education Questionnaire via online survey link. Results: There is a general awareness among all students regarding the importance and relevance of anatomy, i.e., to be a safe and competent doctor (80.7%) and to be able to perform invasive procedures and surgeries on patients (79.1%). Majority of students feel that inadequate assessments (59%), integrated curriculum (53%), and inappropriate teaching methods (31%) are the major factors that influence students' performance in anatomy. Teaching anatomy via cadaveric dissection (72.2%) is the most preferred study tool whereas traditional lectures (29.9%) are the least preferred methods among the students. Majority of students (97.3%) agree that having more continuous assessments helps them identify their weaknesses in anatomy. Discussion and Conclusions: This study suggests the necessity for some educational refinements to improve anatomy learning by fostering deeper approaches via clinical integration of the subject and utilization of anatomy videos.
  2,985 353 4
Discriminant function analysis of craniometric traits for sexual dimorphism and its implication in forensic anthropology
Balakrishnan Ramamoorthy, Mangala M Pai, Sonali Ullal, Latha V Prabhu
October-December 2019, 68(4):260-268
Introduction: Determination of sex from bony elements is the fundamental step to human virtue. Scholars agree highly accurate sex identification can be done from adult skulls. Direct assessment of the bones is not always the most appropriate or practical. Medical advances have provided cross-sectional slices of scanned individuals in the form of computed tomography (CT). The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of cranial measurements for sex differences in CT head scan records of adult live subjects to the highest possible percentage in South Indians and to develop discriminant function equations. Material and Methods: Seventy head CT records were taken and 16 parameters were measured using RadiAnt DICOM viewer software. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, and discriminant function analysis. Results: The classification accuracy obtained by multivariate analysis of all 16 variables was 97.1%, multivariate analysis of nine most significant variables was 91.4% and by stepwise was 92.9% and that by univariate analysis for bizygomatic breadth, orbital breadth, basion-bregma height, and inter-orbital breadth was 81.4%, 74.3%, 72.9%, and 70%, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: Multivariate analysis gave the highest classification accuracy and bizygomatic breadth, orbital breadth, basion-bregma height, and inter-orbital breadth were the most dimorphic variables in the study population and several other populations, and thereby should always be considered in the sex determination of humans. The study derived specific discriminant functions for sex determination in the South Indian population, providing a population-specific data for sex determination using craniometric parameters in the South Indian population and for future studies on skeletalized remains.
  2,931 360 1
A review of flaps and their uses in reconstructive surgery
M Sivakumar, Devi Prasad Mohapatra
April-June 2020, 69(2):103-109
The field of reconstructive surgery is rapidly advancing with advances in the techniques of anatomical dissection, understanding of the neurovascular physiology, and improvements in surgical instrumentation. Flaps are composite units of tissue which have their own blood supply or an intact arteriovenous system to receive vascular inflow when transferred to a site of defect. Due to a wide array of flaps being used in reconstructive surgery, numerous terminologies can be found in use by reconstructive surgeons. Skin flaps are flaps that are composed of skin and subcutaneous tissues. Composite flaps are those which contain more than one component within the flap substance, and perforator flaps are those based on a cutaneous perforator. The angiosome concept has aided in understanding the vascular basis of flaps and increases their utility. Further research and insights are needed at the moment to have a finer understanding of the tissue neurovascular anatomy and flap behavior.
  2,964 266 -
The toxicological and histopathological effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes in ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced in Swiss albino mice
Hema Nidugala, Ramakrishna Avadhani, Ashwini Prabhu, B Ravishankar
April-June 2019, 68(2):99-104
Introduction: Cyperus rotundus, commonly known as mustha, is a perennial weed and possesses the ability to adopt to various soil types, temperatures, and moisture levels. It has several pharmacological and medicinal applications such as astringent, diuretic, antispasmodic, carminative, vermifuge, and antimicrobial properties. This study was designed to assess the toxicological and histopathological effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. rotundus rhizomes in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-induced Swiss albino mice. Material and Methods: Toxicity evaluation was carried out according to the OECD guidelines and histopathological assessment of the liver and kidney tissues was made using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Results indicated that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts did not induce any toxicity up to 2000 mg/kg body weight doses. Examination of ascitic fluid revealed that ethanol extract at 250 mg/kg dosage induced degenerative changes, whereas aqueous extract at both dosage levels showed mild signs of apoptosis. Gross pathology of the liver and kidney indicated that the extracts did not alter the normal cytoarchitecture of these tissues. Discussion and Conclusion: Findings from this study interpret that C. rotundus rhizome extracts can be used as a complementary therapeutic in the EAC.
  2,828 324 1
Perspective of the 1st year undergraduate medical students in learning anatomy
Rohini Punja, Suhani Sumalatha, Mamatha Hosapatna
April-June 2019, 68(2):129-132
Introduction: Anatomy, one of the basic sciences' subject of the 1st year medical education curriculum, is recognized as an essential foundation for clinical sciences. However, there is a continuing debate on the best method of learning anatomy. In this study, we infer the perception of the 1st year medical students on the best method of learning anatomy. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on 246 1st year undergraduate medical students, of the academic year 2015–2016. An online platform – Survey Monkey – was utilized to conduct the survey where multiple-answer multiple-choice questions were sent to the students, and the results were tabulated on a graph. Results: The optimal way of learning anatomy according to 80% of students was through small-group teaching in comparison to didactic lectures according to 12%. Integrated teaching introduced as talks by physicians (31%) and problem-based learning (28%) was not well appreciated. However, they felt an exposure to the clinical side where small groups are taken to the hospital to demonstrate relevant case/procedure/examination would have a more significant impact (78%). There was a favorable opinion (74%) on the formation of an Anatomy mentor cell where the students who had performed poorly during the first sessional test were under the guidance of anatomy staff, and regular assignments were given. Discussion and Conclusion: Anatomy exposes the student to an ocean of knowledge; it also inculcates a particular attitude and communication toward another human being. The students' perspective in learning Anatomy plays a crucial role in the changing times and demand reforms which would best aid the student-centric learning.
  2,780 335 1
Body mass index in adult jaunsari tribe population of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand
Kumar Satish Ravi, Mukesh Singla, Mohd Salahuddin Ansari
April-June 2019, 68(2):138-142
Introduction: Obesity is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. It is one of the defining components of cardiometabolic syndrome. Several indices are there for measurement of obesity, but body mass index (BMI) is relatively better than others and can be measured by the individual himself/herself. There is lack of such study for Jaunsari tribe population of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. These values can also be used as standard for future reference for Jaunsari population. The study was planned to study parameters related to BMI in adult Jaunsari tribe of district Dehradun, Uttarakhand. The objectives of the study were: (1) to study BMI and the parameters related to it in adult male and female population of Jaunsari tribe of Dehradun district in Uttarakhand, (2) to analyze the sex differences in these parameters, and (3) to analyze statistical significance of the difference. Material and Methods: The study was carried on 100 adult males and 100 adult females of >18 years of age, belonging to Jaunsari tribe, after due approval from the institutional ethical committee and informed consent. The methodology adopted for the anthropometric measurements was of Singh and Bhasin (1968), and concerned measurements were done. Results: The mean weight, height, and BMI are found to be 50.90 ± 9.92 kg and 59.81 ± 10.74 kg, 152.43 ± 5.63 cm and 165.39 ± 7.23 cm, and 21.90 ± 4.05 and 21.85 ± 3.65 in female and male Jaunsari population, respectively, with statistically significant variation in both weight and height across gender with little or no variation in BMI. Standing height of majority of females falls under class short (54%) or very short (39%), whereas 32% of males are tall, 21% are lower medium, and 22% are short. This means that BMI falls into the category of “normal weight". Discussion and Conclusion: Hence, it is concluded that the mean BMI is 21.90 ± 4.05 kg and 21.85 ± 3.65 kg in female and male Jaunsari population, respectively, which falls into the category of “normal weight.” This may be attributed to their traditional lifestyle and typical geographical location. This can be used as standard for future reference for Jaunsari population.
  2,838 243 -
Morphometric variations of nasal parameters in gujarati population: An anatomical study
MM Rohith, Jyotirmoy Roy, Abraham Johnson
July-September 2020, 69(3):127-132
Introduction: Nasal morphology is an important factor in forensic investigations and facial reconstructive procedures. Found to be strongly related to ethnicity and environmental factors, and known to be sexually dimorphic, the study of nasal parameters is useful in forensic facial reconstruction. The aim of the study is to evaluate the nasal morphological characteristics of the Gujarati population as an indicator for personal identification and to assess the prevalent nasal morphology of the study population determined. Material and Methods: The study involved randomly selected 180 healthy subjects (90 males and 90 females) between three age groups. Nasal width and nasal height were measured using a digital vernier caliper, and nasal index was calculated along with other parameters. The data were statistically analyzed. Results: The mean nasal width for male and female was 38.23 mm and 34.94 mm while the mean nasal height was 47.59 mm and 44.35 mm, respectively. The mean nasal index for male subjects (81.08) was also higher than for female subjects (77.30). The morphological classification showed the mesorrhine nose type as the most prevalent among both the males (58.88%) and females (66.66%). Discussion and Conclusion: The population under the study exhibits mesorrhine type of the nose and shows sexual dimorphism in the values of nasal measurements. Thus, the current study is valuable not only in forensic facial reconstruction but also as an added method for determining the gender and ethnicity of an unidentified individual.
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Estimation of gestational age by ultrasound measurement of fetal transcerebellar diameter
Maheswari Cinnusamy, Deepti Shastri, Josephine Arokia Martina
January-March 2021, 70(1):19-24
Introduction: Transcerebellar diameter (TCD) normogram predicts gestational age (GA) with an accuracy of 94% in the third trimester. The study aims to evaluate the application and accuracy of Transcerebellar diameter in determining the GA of the fetus and Its Correlation. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study conducted to determine the different antenatal ultrasound examinations were performed in 100 normal healthy pregnant with single fetus women having between 25 and 32 weeks of gestation. Results: Mothers mean GA on ultrasound was 28.4 ± 0.75 (27–30.2) weeks. The mean fetal biometry parameters including biparietal diameter (BPD) was 73 ± 2.3 mm (67–80), head circumference (HC) was 264 ± 8.7 mm (237.8–311), abdominal circumference (AC) was 244 ± 8.9 mm (226.6–265.9), femur length (FL) was 55 ± 2.1 mm (49.5–59.6), fetal heart rate was 149 ± 8.5 beats (121–175). The mean transcerebellar (TCD) measurement was 31 ± 1.1 mm. The correlation coefficient between the period of gestation and TCD was found to be 0.99 at 27–30 weeks which was statistically significant (P < 0.001) (r > 0.99). Discussion and Conclusion: From the present study, it was observed that the TCD increases linearly with GA. The correlation between GA and the GA by TCD seems to increase from 28 to 30 weeks. There is a good correlation between GA derived from TCD and from established biometric indices like BPD, HC, AC, and femur length.
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