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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 71  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 34-41

Effects of maternal iron deficiency anemia on placenta and cord blood iron status with specific reference to the iron transport protein ferroportin 1

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gandhi Hospital, Secunderabad, Telangana, India
2 Division of Pathology and Microbiology, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3 Division of Pathology and Microbiology, National Institute of Nutrition (Indian Council of Medical Research), Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mullapudi Venkata Surekha
Division of Pathology and Microbiology, National Institute of Nutrition (Indian Council of Medical Research), Jamai-Osmania, Tarnaka, Hyderabad - 500 007, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jasi.jasi_158_20

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Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency disorder in pregnant women. During pregnancy, nutrients, including iron, are transferred from the mother to the fetus through the placenta, in which the placental transport protein Ferroportin1 (FPN1) plays a crucial role. It has been frequently observed that developing fetus is immune to anemia despite the presence of anemia in the mother, the mechanisms underlying which have not been identified. We, therefore, planned the present study to explore the effect of maternal iron deficiency anemia on the expression of FPN1 in the placenta. Material and Methods: Two hundred pregnant women recruited were divided into anemic and nonanemic groups based on their predelivery hemoglobin levels (<11 g/dl and ≥11 g/dl, respectively). After delivery, placental expression of FPN1 was studied by immunohistochemistry and mRNA analysis, and neonatal anthropometry was performed. Results: Of the 200 women, 59% were anemic. FPN1 protein immunohistochemical staining in placenta showed a statistically significant increase with increasing severity of anemia. Similarly, placental mRNA expression levels of the FPN1 gene were observed to be higher in anemic mothers when compared with nonanemic mothers. Discussion and Conclusion: Thus, our study for the first time shows that maternal iron deficiency increases placental FPN1 protein and mRNA expression, thereby probably facilitating increased transport of iron from the mother to the fetus.

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